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AAWS - Army Automated Warehouse System. This system automated the storage and retrieval of Army Garrison warehouse items by creating a search database.
ABRAMS Tank- Army Main Battle Tank. (Platform for Appliqué, EPLRS and SINCGARS).
AFCEA- Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association.
AISC - Army Information Systems Command. Once headquartered at Ft. Huachuca, this government organization was responsible for much of the Army's communication capabilities. It was responsible for the AUTODIN and specifically the AMME system.
AMME - Automated Multimedia Exchange System. This UNIVAC 9400-based system was used extensively by the army as an AUTODIN switch at CONUS communication centers.
APBS - Automated Property Book System. The APBS is one automated method of handling the Army Garrison hand receipts. This system was IBM 4361-mainframe based and was written in COBOL and Assembler.
ATCCS - Army Tactical Command and Control System. ATCCS common hardware is a family of COTS based computer hardware, peripherals, and software procured to satisfy user requirements for the input, processing, storage, retrieval, reproduction, presentation, decision support, data analysis, tactical planning, and transmission of data. ATCCS common software is a family of common applications, CASS, and COTS software developed or procured to operate on the common hardware equipment. Most software is COTS based. Examples of COTS software features include: the operating system, an integrated business package, word processing, spreadsheet, database management, graphics, ADA language programming tools, communications packages, training software, networking software, and electronic mail (E-mail). While each BFA has its own unique applications software, CASS provides the generic software functions common to all BFAs. CASS consists of common system support and applications software not available in the commercial world. Some examples of CASS software are the movement control module, the digital mapping module, and the terrain evaluation module.
ASAS - All Source Analysis System. The All Source Intelligence System (ASAS) is the Army's battle command intelligence system which provides the ground enemy picture to the GCCS and COP. Currently army tactical intelligence units at Division and corps require the use of two servers: Intelink and Intelink-S. The Intelink server resides in the Analysis and Control Element (ACE) on a JWICs connection in an SCI environment that enforces all necessary security requirements on entities that have access to the information. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) and other tactical intelligence products are created by the ACE to support the commander. These products reside on the Intelink Server. ASAS-All Source database queries on enemy information are also accommodated in the SCI environment. The ACE creates a similar set of collateral products for the bulk of the users in the collateral environment. A second server, Intelink-S, is populated with the collateral information via sneaker-net outside of the SCIF for distribution via the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET).
BFACS - Battlefield Functional Area Communications System. These systems are responsible for one or more aspects of ATCCS operation (e.g. MCS provides the common picture, ASAS provides intelligence, CSSCS provides service support and FAD provides Air Defense).
Common Data Link (CDL). The CDL was developed in an effort to implement previously proposed geometric pairing algorithms, to extend the intent of those algorithms to other forms of engagement and to determine the degree to which existing Air Force and Navy capabilities could be exploited. This task was initiated in response to U.S. Army Operational Test Command (OTC) requirements for a Geometric Pairing (GP) system to assess attacker/target engagements at long range and for non line-of-sight weapons systems such as artillery, missiles and remotely designated munitions. The limitations of the current generation of Light Amplified by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation (LASER) based Real Time Casualty Assessment (RTCA) systems operating in the near-infrared band are well documented and include but are not limited to the inability to engage targets in the presence of atmospheric attenuates and common battlefield obscurants and the inability to pair reliably at extended ranges or, by means of indirect fire. Without a GP capable system, evaluation of long range and/or non line-of-sight Air-Ground, Ground-Air & Ground-Ground engagements using the Mobile Automated Instrumentation Suite (MAIS) or any future RTCA system would not be possible. The focus of this effort has been the validation of the systems concepts, engineering models and the technical approach for development a direct fire line-of-sight and non line-of-sight geometric pairing system to exceed the performance of LASER based techniques. To this end the project has been completely successful and the work performed, now sets the standard for the development of future testing and training systems which will use geometric pairing.
CompactPCI - Compact PCI. Is an adaptation of the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Specification for industrial and/or embedded applications requiring a more robust mechanical form factor than desktop PCI. CompactPCI uses industry standard mechanical components and high performance connector technologies to provide an optimized system intended for rugged applications. CompactPCI provides a system that is electrically compatible with the PCI Specification, allowing low cost PCI components to be utilized in a mechanical form factor suited for rugged environments. The form factor defined for CompactPCI boards is based upon the Eurocard industry standard. Both 3U (100 mm by 160 mm) and 6U (233.35 mm by 160 mm) board sizes are defined. The 3U-form factor is the minimum for CompactPCI as is accommodates the full 64-Bit CompactPCI bus. The 6U extensions are defined for boards where the extra board area or connection space is needed.
CONUS - Continental United States.
COR - Contracting Officers Representative. This Government official is responsible for the day to day operations of the execution of the contract. The COR handles all aspects dealing with the interpretation and deliverables of the contract.
COTS - Commercial off the Shelf. Applies to any readily available commercially available hardware or software products.
DAUVS - Digitized Army USMTF /VMF Message Stimulator. The DAUVS stimulator is a KMS, IP-Lite or SAIC Lightweight Computing Unit (LCU) running a Santa Cruz Operations (SCO) Unix Runtime operating system, and SCO TCP/IP and SCO DOS Merge utilities. The system will also include an 802.3 standard Ethernet Adapter and a Digiboard High Speed Serial Controller. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Timing Unit (GTU) issued for accurate logfile timestampping and time keeping.
DAUVS has a message generation, transmission, and receive capability. DAUVS is able to construct USMTF, VMF SA, and command and control (C2) messages from its internal message database.
DAUVS has the capability to register and resolve its address using the MSE Tactical Name Server (TNS). DAUVS is able to initialize the INC according to ITT-provided initialization procedures. The DAUVS operator or master device has the ability to add, delete, modify, or erase the INC Initialization Management Information Base II (MIB-II) Database.
For USMTF , VMF , and Situational Awareness (SA) messages, the Originator, Destination ID, Number of Messages, Transfer Rate, and Start Time are variable fields. The DAUVS has a message transfer capability available over Local Area Network (LAN), Tactical Multinet Gateway (TMG) LAN, and Internet Controller (INC) Wide Area Network (WAN). The DAUVS has a message reception capability available over LAN, TMG LAN, and INC WAN from other DAUVS systems. DAUVS will recognize and record VMF messages and acknowledgments by decoding the IP, User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and VMF header. The VMF header will be decoded as defined by the VMF Technical Interface Design Plan (TIDP) rules (case and conditionally statement syntax).
EPG - White Sands Missile Range - The Electronic Proving Ground (EPG) is a subcommand of White Sands Missile Range, an element of the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, which, in turn, is part of the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) in Alexandria, Virginia. EPG is located on Fort Huachuca, Arizona with operations at our Fort Lewis Field Office, Fort Lewis, Washington and Fort Hood, Texas. EPG's mission is to support developers by conducting tests and experiments of new electronic systems including command, control, communications, computer, intelligence (C4I), and electronic warfare equipment. In support of the mission, they provide a wide range of test, experimentation, and evaluation services to government and commercial organizations throughout all phases of the development cycle.
EPLRS - Enhanced Position Location Reporting System. EPLRS is a system for data distribution on the battlefield. EPLRS is a computer-based communications system designed to provide secure, jam-resistant, contention free, near real-time data transmission and distribution to subscribers. Additionally, EPLRS provides unit identification, navigational aids, and the automatic location reporting of tactical combat and CS forces. EPLRS uses integral dual level (CONFIDENTIAL/ SECRET) cryptographic security with over-the-air rekeying. (OTAR), frequency hopping, and error correction encoding as ECM protection. An EPLRS community consists of a net control station-EPLRS (NCS-E) and up to 460 EPLRS user units (EPUU) operating on eight UHF frequencies from 420 to 450 MHz.
HSLT - High Speed LAN Tap. This RTK DOS-based data collection system captured, timestampped, logged, recognized and summarized both USMTF and VMF messages collected on an Army Tactical LAN network.
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the world's largest technical professional society. Founded in 1884 by a handful of practitioners of the new electrical engineering discipline, today's Institute is comprised of more than 320,000 members who conduct and participate in its activities in 152 countries. The technical objectives of the IEEE focus on advancing the theory and practice of electrical, electronics and computer engineering and computer science. To realize these objectives, the IEEE sponsors technical conferences, symposia and local meetings worldwide: publishes nearly 25% of the world's technical papers in electrical, electronics and computer engineering; provides educational programs to keep its members' knowledge and expertise state-of-the-art.
ILMS - In-line Monitoring System. The ILMS provides a means to determine MSE Digital Truck Group (DTG) status. A DTG is the means by which one MSE asset transmits data to another MSE asset. The TI-required modification to the ILMS is MSE Backbone Ping. This will enable the ILMS to also determine link status and statistics on the MSE Tactical Packet Network (TPN) portion of the TI.
ISA - Industry Standard Architecture. Typically used to denote the bus architecture used in many desktop PC's. The ISA bus has a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 16 Mbytes/s (more commonly stated as 8 Mbytes/s, since it usually requires one bus cycle for the address and another for the 16 bits of data). The typical maximum speed is 1 to 2.5 Mbytes/s (which is 8 to 20 Mbits/s). This speed is so variable because of bus contention with other devices (mainly memory) and buffering delays due to the asynchronous nature of the bus (the processor speed is different from the bus speed).
LCU - Lightweight Computer Unit. The LCU is a portable one-piece digital computer designed by SAIC for commercial applications and ruggedized for the military tactical environment. It is a rectangular unit weighing approximately 20 pounds and may be hand carried. The operating system may be either DOS or UNIX-based and will run COTS software. Basic features include a built-in display, detachable keyboard with embedded trackball, flexible disk drive, removable hard disk drive, 32-bit microprocessor, internal random access memory (RAM), and a removable/rechargeable battery backup. The LCU is designed to accept COTS printed circuit cards for processing enhancement and peripheral interface. The peripherals include a printer and a communications interface device. The LCU was designed to meet the needs of the majority of the tactical computer users. The HCU is a digital computer ruggedized to withstand a military tactical environment. It presently consists of a central processing unit (CPU), keyboard, trackball, and a monitor with a combined packed weight not to exceed 100 pounds. The HCU is vehicle transportable. The operating system is UNIX-based and will run COTS software. It is equipped with the following interfaces: small computer system interface (SCSI), RS-232C, tactical communications, ground/vehicular laser locator designator (G/VLLD), and program load. The HCU is designed to accept COTS printed circuit cards for processing enhancement and peripheral interface. The HCU was designed to meet the needs of the high-end tactical computer user, with computation intensive requirements.
LLP - Lower Level Protocol. The portion of the UCM communications driver that deals with the physical layer.
Mobile Automated Instrumented Suite - MAIS. The Mobile Automated Instrumentation Suite (MAIS) is a system for real-time control, monitoring and data collection of simulated force-on-force combat exercises conducted by the US Army. The nerve center of MAIS is a Command, Control, and Communications (C3) Center from where combat simulations are controlled and monitored.
Players in MAIS-controlled exercises are fitted with instrumentation to simulate weapon firing, report hits, player location and status. A Players instrumentation is referred to as a PLAYER UNIT (PU). The MAIS system is built around the core concept of real-time casualty assessment (RTCA) which provides immediate player attrition and survivability information without exposure to live fire. Before an exercise begins, Observer/Controllers download weapon lethality and target vulnerability data to Player units via a laptop computer and assigned software. Struck targets then perform RTCA by using probabilistic data provided by the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) and Ballistics Research Laboratory (BRL), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.
Manual Data Harvester - Manual Harvester. The DOS-based Manual Harvester is used at the end of a data collection period (mission) to collect, account for and transfer all collected data. The harvesting function includes:
- Downloading the files from the collection device to the Harvester.
- Running automated quality control programs on the files.
- Preparing the files for transfer.
MFC - Microsoft Foundation Classes. When creating a program for any Windows platform, the programmer has two choices: C or C++. With C, the programmer codes at the level of the Windows Application Program Interface (API). This interface consists of a collection of hundreds of C functions described in the Window's API Reference books. For Window's NT, the API is typically referred to as the "Win32 API," to distinguish it from the original 16-bit API of lower-level Windows products like Windows 3.1. Microsoft also provides a C++ library that sits on top of any of the Windows APIs and makes the programmer's job easier. Called the Microsoft Foundation Class library (MFC), this library's primary advantage is efficiency. It greatly reduces the amount of code that must be written to create a Windows program. It also provides all the advantages normally found in C++ programming, such as inheritance and encapsulation. MFC is portable, so that, for example, code created under Windows 3.1 can move to Windows NT of Windows 95 very easily.
MFDC - Multi-Functional Data Collector. This Compact PCI and Microsoft Windows NT-based data collection system replaces the RTK DOS-based HSLT. Like the HSLT it captures, timestamps, logs, recognizes and summarizes both USMTF and VMF messages collected on an Army Tactical LAN network. In addition to data collection, the MFDC stimulates both the Tactical Internet and devices connected to the net.
MSE - Mobile Subscriber Equipment. A mobile tactical LAN (Internet) network. This network is typically deployed to provide phone service (circuit) and LAN routing to Army Division and Corps echelons. The MSE packet network (MPN) is an ADDS using packet switching technology overlaid on the MSE area common-user voice network. With so many battlefield automated systems (BAS) on the Air & Land Battlefield and their immediate need for a viable, responsive means of transmission, MSE was given the mission. The MPN will consist of packet switch nodes (PSNs) in each SENs, LENs, and NS. The PSNs form a network dedicated to data traffic. The user connects his BAS to the PSN at his location and sends data traffic to other authorized systems. Gateways connect the corps network to adjacent corps and EAC. Current plans require the BAS to use X.25 (standard) and TCP/IP to ensure compatibility between systems/networks. The MSE system dedicates four trunks between NCS's, two trunks on each link to a LEN, and one trunk to each SEN for connectivity. This allows a 16 kb/s flow of data from the SENs and a 64 kb/s flow from LENs and NCS's.
NHS - Network Health monitoring System. The NHS/Pinger provides a means to determine the LAN status at a local node. This system uses ICMP (Ping) messages to automatically determine the status of both ATCCS and MSE assets. The Pinger is also able to query the MSE Tactical Name Server (TNS) to determine which SUTs are active and registered. This information is timestampped, logged and provided real-time to the TCC.
PC-TIS - PC Test Item Stimulator. This small footprint PC-DOS/UCM-based system used ADA, C and Intel 960 Assembler and was designed to replace the aging VAX-based MicroTest Item Stimulators (Micro-TIS).
RTK - Real-time Kernel. A set of multi-user, multitasking DOS-based kernel routines allowing the application to be both real-time and event driven.
SINCGARS - Single Channel Ground/Airborne Radio Set. SINCGARS is a new family of VHF-FM radio sets, which provide secure voice and data transmission capability to the commander. SINCGARS radio sets replace VRC-12 series radios on a one-for-one basis. The Battlefield Electronic CEOI System (BECS) is the frequency management tool for SINCGARS. SINCGARS can transmit voice and data across a broad frequency spectrum using a frequency-hopping technique. This technique results in a decreased threat of degradation associated with nuclear/ nonnuclear combat and electronic countermeasures (ECM). SINCGARS interfaces with MSE through the net radio interface (NRI) located in selected SENs or LENs.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. A network implementation that allows hosts to exchange email over connection oriented network channels. SMTP is defined in RFC 821.
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol. A standardized methodology and prescription for variable nomenclature designed to ease the remote configuration and monitoring of routers. SNMP was used extensively throughout Tactical Internet demonstration and TFXXI to configure the Tactical Multinet Gateway (TMG) Cisco Routers and the Internet Controller (INC). All variables are defined by MIBs (Management Information Bases), though most equipment has manufacturer-specific extensions. These extensions are described by using a subset of a language called Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), which is described in the Structure of Management Information (SMI--see RFCs 1155 and 1212). A MIB compiler is then used to integrate the extensions into the management station's SNMP software. SNMP uses TCP/IP's UDP connectionless transport.
TCC - Test Control Center. This graphics display system is responsible for instrumentation Command and Control (C2) for EPG/TEXCOM ATCCS and TFXXI tests. Control is maintained using X.25 PAD radios and instrumentation information is displayed on one of many consoles.
TCP - (or TCP/IP) Transmission Control Protocol. A connection-oriented layer 4 (also called transport) protocol, which provides an error-free connection between two cooperating programs, which are typically on different computers. A connection must be established (using the connect and accept functions) before communication begins. This is similar to a telephone call--you can't just pick up the phone and start talking (well, you can, but you would be talking to a dial tone--which some would consider a waste of time). A TCP-based communication between programs is often called a stream service (or even a reliable stream service), in that the receiving program is guaranteed to receive all the data, with nothing corrupted, no duplicates, nothing lost, and in the same sequence as sent. The data will be received as a stream of bytes--the actual packaging (the number and boundaries of packets of data) of the bytes received may be different from how it was sent.
TCU - Transportable Computer Unit. The TCU is a two-piece digital computer ruggedized to withstand a military tactical environment. It consists of a computer unit and an external monitor unit. It is a vehicle transportable unit, which may be rack mounted or used on a tabletop. The operating system is UNIX-based and will run COTS software. The TCU is designed to accept COTS printed circuit cards for processing enhancement and peripheral interface. The baseline peripherals include a printer, a secondary storage device, and a communications interface device. The TCU was designed to meet the needs of the mid-to-upper-end tactical computer user.
TFXXI - Task Force Twenty-One. Force XXI is the reconceptualization and redesign of the force at all echelons, from the foxhole to the industrial base, to meet the needs of a volatile and ever changing world. It will be a force organized around information and information technologies. The central and essential feature of this Army will be its ability to exploit information. Information and digital technologies are creating such a synergistic effect among all the operating systems, organizations and components that the Army's capability will be enhanced by an order of magnitude.
TMDE - Test Measurement and Diagnostic equipment. This system was designed to automate the tracking and effectiveness of Army-based test measurement equipment.
TMS - Tactical Internet Monitoring System. The TMS is a KMS, IP-Lite or SAIC LCU running a Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), and SCO TCP/IP and SCO DOS Merge utilities. The system includes an 802.3 standard Ethernet Adapter and a Digiboard High Speed Serial Controller. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Timing Unit (GTU) is used for accurate logfile timestampping and time keeping.
The TCC operator has the ability to Start, Stop, and Configure the TMS; Enable/Disable TMG and INC Links and Routers; and Monitor the TMS status of operation. A timestampped logfile of all network changes is generated and maintained such that it can be harvested at the end of a collection period.
The TMS acts as a surrogate NMTB2. The TMS receives and record traps sent by TI Routers to the NMTB2.
The TMS has the capability to determine the network lay down, maintain current network statistics, and record the Network Management Terminal (Brigade and Below) (NMTB2) configuration and the recorded network health. The TMS periodically logs-onto the NMTB2 and downloads its configuration and database information. Selected data is passed to the TCC.
A Network Link Outage Controller function allows the TMS to disable and re-enable selected TMG and INC links and routers to meet TI Technical Test requirements. Outages and reconnections are controllable by the TCC and by the TMS operator.
A timestampped logfile of all Message Generation Criteria is generated and maintained such that it can be harvested at the end of a collection period.
UCM - Universal Communications Module. This Intel i960-base embedded computer was responsible for both LAN and WAN data collection and stimulation. One or more boards could be placed on the ISA bus of an LCU to perform data collection. The UCM was recently replaced by the HSLT LAN data collection unit.
UDP - User Datagram Protocol. This User Datagram Protocol is the corresponding connectionless layer 4 TCP/IP protocol. It provides connectionless services between client and server process wishing to maintain their own control of Datagram receipt and acknowledgments.
ULP - Upper Level Protocol. The portion of the UCM communications driver designed to pass data between the application layer and the UCM .
USMTF - United States Message Text Format. A plain text SMTP (Email)-based message transfer system allowing the communication between ATCCS systems.
VMF - Variable Message Format. A bit oriented message transfer mechanism allowing communication between both ATCCS and Appliqué Systems.
Y2K - Year 2000 conformity. This effort ensures that neither performance nor functionality will be affected by dates prior to, during and after the year 2000. In particular:
- No value for current date will cause any interruption in operation.
- Date-based functionality must behave consistently for dates prior to, during and after year 2000.
- In all interfaces and data storage, the century in any date must be specified either explicitly or by unambiguous algorithms or inferencing rules.
- Year 2000 must be recognized as a leap year.
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